Terminology & Research

What makes the Jean baré ranges stand out even more from its competitors, is the certain actives used with its respective permutations, are exclusive to the Jean baré brand. These are the following:

Mucor Racemosus

Mucor racemosus is a filamentous fungus found in soil, plants, decaying fruits and vegetables. It is used in various different medical scenarios where it helps to resolve chronic and acute blood illnesses that are caused by complex morphological structures. For example it is used to treat pathological disruptions in the arterial and venous system of the body, as well as any circulatory disturbances. The addition of Mucor racemosus to the Jean baré ARMAMENT range, thus ensures increased blood flow to the upper layers of the skin, enhancing the supply of oxygen to the dermis where often healing and cell regeneration are needed.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Rifai, N. 2018. Mycology. Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. New York. Elsevier Inc.

Abdel-Azeem, AM, Salem, FM, Abdel-Azeem MA, Nafady NA, Mohesien MT & Soliman EA. 2016. Biodiversity of the Genus Aspergillus in Different Habitats. New and future developments in microbial biotechnology and bioengineering. New York. Elsevier Inc.

M4 Mucor Racemosus.  [WWW document – 13/2/2022].  URL https://www.thermofisher.com/diagnostic-education/hcp/wo/en/resource-center/allergen-encyclopedia/whole-allergens.html?key=m4

Saccharomyces Lysate Extract

Mucor racemosus is further combined with another augmented cellular oxygen enhancer ingredient, Saccharomyces lysate extract.  The compound effect of these two actives is improved absorption, addition of valuable nutrients, decreased irritation and absolute optimized cellular oxygen supply & consumption.  A compound effect unique to Jean baré ARMAMENT.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Saccharomyces lysate extract.  2018.  [WWW document – 13/2/2022].  URL https://thedermreview.com/saccharomyces-lysate-extract/.


Mangiferin, is bioactive compound that is isolated from mango fruit and its byproducts.This medical supplement possesses several properties of which immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiallergic and antimicrobial is of the most prominent. Mangiferin is added to the Jean baré ARMAMENT range specifically for its antioxidant, antiallergic and antimicrobial attributes.  It contributes to leaving the skin relaxed, calm and protected.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Imran, M, Arshad, MS, Butt, MS, Kwon, J, Arshad MU & Sultan, MT.  2017.  Mangiferin:  a natural miracle bioactive compound against lifestyle related disorders.  Lipids in Health and Disease 16:84.

Mangiferin.  [WWW document – 4/2/2022].  URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangiferin.

Aspergillus Niger Extract

Aspergillus niger extract is an immunobiological medicine which is extracted from a fungal source.  It is known for its ability to discard decomposition products & toxic matter. This prime ingredient is added to the Jean baré pigmentation serum to eliminate the degradational products of pigmentation elimination.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Abdel-Wahhab, MA, El-Nekeety, AA, Hathout, AS, Salman, AS, Abdel-Aziem, SH, Sabry, BA, Hassan, NS, Abdel-Aziz, MS, Aly, SE & Jaswir, I.  2020.  Bioactive compounds from Aspergillus niger extract enhance the antioxidant activity and prevent the genotoxicity in aflatoxin B-treated rats. Toxicon Jul 15(181):57-68.

Silver Ions

Silver ions is known for its antibacterial & antifungal, and therefore disinfecting effect.  Silver ions adsorb to most biomolecules in order to inactivate them totallyThe silver ions disintegrate the cell membranes of unwanted organisms, and the result of this is total disintegration of the organism (see Figure 1).  Research has also shown that silver ions trigger the regrowth of tissue and has played various important roles in wound healing.  Most products of the Jean baré ARMAMENT range are composed via the use of silver ions infused in water.  Thus the aim of the whole range is to provide a antibacterial playground for all active ingredients to follow.

Figure 1:  Disintegration of the cell membrane of unwanted organisms via silver ions

(Marshall, P.  2019Differences between colloidal silver and ionic silver solutions.  Pure Colloids).

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Marshall, P.  2019. Differences between colloidal silver and ionic silver solutions. Pure Colloids Nov(6).

Nafisi, S & Maibach, HI.  2017. Cosmetic Science and Technology – Nanotechnology in Cosmetics.  New York.  Elsevier Inc.

Xu, Z, Zhang, C, Wang, X & Liu, D. 2021. Release Strategies of Silver Ions from Materials for Bacterial Killing. ACS Applied Bio Materials January(11).

Growth Factor

Growth factor refers to a group of proteins responsible for the stimulation of tissue growth. It is a group of peptide-hormone like substances.  Cell division and cellular growth is triggered via growth factors. Growth factors, unlike hormones which is limited to glandular tissue, can be produced via various types of tissue. Growth factors are added to some of the products of the Jean baré ARMAMENT range specifically to target cell regeneration and growth.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Growth factor.  [WWW document – 2/2/2022].  URL https://www.britannica.com/science/growth-factor.

What are Growth factors (Growth factor definition). [WWW document – 13/2/2022].  URL https://www.sinobiological.com/resource/cytokines/what-are-growth-factors

3,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-10-oxo-1,4-dihydropyrano[4,3-b]chromene-9-carboxylic acid

Fulvic acid is a by-product of microbial organic degradation, also known as humic substances. Fulvic acid has a very small molecular weight, is hydrophilic and a carboxylic-containing molecule. Various different research studies on fulvic acid have proven that it act as an anti-inflammatory seeing that it reduces the release of proinflammatory mediators from cells. This is of utmost importance for disorders that stem from overactive immune cells (like some allergies, eczema, inflammatory skin conditions etc). Jean baré ARMAMENT range has added to its armour the coal-derived form of fulvic acid – oxyfulvic acid – to address any possible inflammatory skin conditions.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Fulvic acid. [WWW document – 3/2/2022].  URL https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Fulvic-acid.

Ganapathy, R.  2009. In Vitro Analysis of the Anti-influenza Virus Activity of Pomegranate Products and Fulvic Acid.  Masters Thesis. Knoxville. University of Tennessee.

Van Rensburg, CEJ, Malfeld, S & Dekker, J. 2001. Topical application of oxyfulvic acid suppresses the cutaneous immune response in mice.  Drug Development Research 53(1):29-32.

Winkler, J & Ghosh, S. 2018. Therapeutic Potential of Fulvic Acid in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Diabetes.  Journal of Diabetes Research Sep.

Citric Acid

Citric acid is an Alpha hydroxy acid, derived from mainly citrus fruit. It is known for its role as a cellular metabolism enhancer when it forms part of a skincare routine. Citric acid assist in cell turnover seeing that it removes dead cells on the skin surface. This action unclogs pores and is responsible for new cell growth and a better and more even skin tone and texture. Citric acid is one of the more tolerable AHA’s and therefore sometimes easier for most skin types to accommodate. It makes sense why citric acid is part of the amour of various products of the Jean baré ARMAMENT range.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Citric acid. [WWW document – 3/2/2022]. URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid.

Terminology of other applicable ingredients, skin concepts and research done on various ingredients, conditions and skin solutions.

Free radicals & Antioxidants

Free radicals are formed when two atoms split and one atom is left with an odd, unpaired electron making it very unstable.  Free radicals will attack the nearest stable molecule to steal its electron; in such an attack the molecule will lose one of its own electrons to become a free radical itself.  This creates a chain reaction. Once this process is started, it can cascade, finally resulting in the disruption of a living cell.

The formation of free radicals arise normally in the body during metabolism, and the immune system also creates free radicals to attack viruses and bacteria.  Other factors that create free radicals are environmental causes such as pollution, radiation and cigarette smoke.  The body can handle these natural free radicals if there is enough antioxidants in the diet.  When free radical production becomes excessive, things get out of hand and damage can occur.  Of particular importance is that free radical damage accumulates with age.


[McCann, J.  2020. Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Disease. Health June (14)].

Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, ending the electron-“stealing” reaction of a free radical. The antioxidants themselves don’t become free radicals by donating an electron because they are (luckily) stable in either form. They act thus as scavengers, helping to prevent cell and tissue damage that could lead to cellular damage and disease. One of the most prominent antioxidants in skin care is probably ascorbic acid, of which Jean baré ARMAMENT contains in many of their products.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
McCann, J.  2020. Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Disease. Health June (14).

Lobo, V, Patil, A, Phatak, A & Chandra, N.  2010. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health.  Pharmacognosy Review Jul-Dec 4(8):118-126.

Barrier function of the epidermis

The so called barrier function of the epidermis, or rather the stratum corneum of the epidermis, consist of 2 main role players: the acid mantle and a lipid layer. The acid mantle is a very fine, acidic layer on the very outer part of the stratum corneum. It is composed out of amino acids, fatty acids, secreted sebum and lactate (from sweat). This thin film acts as a barrier to potential contaminants (like bacteria) and also prevents TEWL. It has a pH value of 4-6. An impaired acid mantle (where the pH is too alkaline), can transpire as the following: flakiness, peeling, dryness, redness, dehydration, tightness & sensitivity. Maintaining the correct pH of the acid mantle is thus of absolute importance for healthy and hydrated skin!

The other role player of this critical barrier, the lipid barrier, is the extracellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum. This layer is composed of cholesterol, ceramides and free fatty acids and the most important role of this layer is that it acts as a hydrophobic barrier. It thus regulates the movement of water and electrolytes from the skin’s surface. A disruption in this barrier function of the skin, will result in a rapid increase in epidermal cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. Schematic composition of these layers, in relation to the epidermis, in Figure 3 (Kuo, S, Shen, CJ, Shen, CF & Cheng, C, 2020 – adapted) and also in Figure 4.



(What is natural, healthy skin pH? [WWW document – 5/2/2022].  URL https://www.ceradan.com/advanced/skin-ph-acid-mantle/)

pH value of the skin, is in actual fact a very important diagnostic tool regarding the physiological state and structure of the skin. If any disruptions occur in any of the two skin barrier layers, the risk for specific skin diseases increases. The importance of the correct skin pH has recently been emphasized in controlled trials of eczema, acne, seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff), diaper dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, incontinence-associated dermatitis, aged skin, ichthyosis and candidiasis, where the benefits of targeted skin acidification and thus topical preparations which have a reduced pH, was shown to be of utmost importance.

In the management and treatment of diseases such as acne, intertrigo, contact dermatitis etc, it is of extreme importance to not compromise the acidic pH of the skin. Therefore part of the treatment regimen of these conditions is skincare products that has a pH of between 4.5 – 6.5. For this reason, ALL products of the Jean baré ARMAMENT range have a pH of between 4.7-6. 

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Benefits of natural ceramides in the Rosette AK series.  [WWW document – 2/2/2022]. URL https://ak.rosette.jp/en/ceramide.html.

Campbell, KL & Lichtensteiger, CA.  2004. Structure and function of the skin. Small Animal Dermatology.  Philadelphia. Hanley & Belfus, Inc.

Ali, SM & Yosipovitch, G. 2013.  Skin pH: From Basic Science to Basic Skin Care. Acta Derm Venereol 93:261-267.

Elias, PM.  2017. The how, why and clinical importance of stratum corneum acidification. Experimental Dermatology (March).

Feingold, KR & Elias PM. 2014. Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta Mar 1841(3): 280-94.

Kahraman, E, Kaykin, M, Bektay, HS & Güngör, S. 2019. Recent Advances on Topical Application of Ceramides to Restore Barrier Function of Skin. Cosmetics 6 (3):52.

Kunde, R.  2021. What to Know about Ceramides for Skin. [WWW document – 5/2/2022].  URL https://www.webmd.com/beauty/what-to-know-about-ceramides-for-skin

Kuo, S, Shen, CJ, Shen, CF & Cheng, C. 2020. Role of pH Value in Clinically Relevant Diagnosis. Diagnostics 10 (2):107.

Lee, T & Friedman, A. 2016. Skin Barrier Health: Regulation and Repair of the Stratum Corneum and the Role of Over-the-Counter Skin Care. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 15(9):1047-1051.

Long, A. 2020. Why the acid mantle is an essential part of your skin’s health. Town & Country (May 28).

Pappas, A. 2009. Epidermal surface lipids. Dermato Endocrinology Mar-Apr 1 (2):72-76.

Stanborough, RJ.  2020. What to know about your skin barrier and how to protect it. Medically reviewed by Perkens, S. [WWW document – 8/2/2022]. URL https://www.healthline.com/health/skin-barrier.

Surber, C, Humbert, P, Abels, C & Maibach, H. 2018. The Acid Mantle: A Myth or an Essential Part of Skin Health? Curr Probl Dermatol 54:1-10.

Tagami, H. 2008. Location-related differences in structure and function of the stratum corneum with special emphasis on those of the facial skin. Journal of Cosmetic Science 30(6):413-434.

The Acid Mantle.  [WWW document – 4/2/2022]. URL https://theskinhealthclinic.co.uk/the-acid-mantle/

What is natural, healthy skin pH?  [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://www.ceradan.com/advanced/skin-ph-acid-mantle/

Compounding & compound action

Often regarded as the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a product (medication) that is tailored to the desired needs. Compound action is referred to when the reaction of one active ingredient causes additional ingredients to inhibit or be enhanced due to the synergistic action of the two (or more) constituents.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Compounding and the FDA: Questions and Answers. 2018. [WWW document – 13/2/2022]. URL https://www.fda.gov/drugs/human-drug-compounding/compounding-and-fda-questions-and-answers.

What is compounding. [WWW document – 13/2/2022]. URL https://compounding.co.za/what-is-compounding/.


Emollients are moisturisers that soften the skin, keep it hydrated, supple & smooth. It makes the skin feel more comfortable, and it eases itchiness and treat conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and ichthyosis. Examples of emollients are fatty acids, butters (like shea butter), oils (avocado oil, coconut oil, safflower oil, evening primrose oil) and lipids.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Ahmad, A & Ahsan, H. 2020. Lipid-based formulation in cosmeceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. Biomedical Dermatology 4:12.

Hopp, D. 2022. How to tell the difference between dry and dehydrated skin, according to an aesthetician. Medically reviewed by Siegel, J.  [WWW document – 6/2/2022]. URL https://www.byrdie.com/dry-skin-oil-production.

Lipids: The Skin Factor Needed for Healthy and Young-looking Skin. [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://cooperlabscabotskinfitness.com/lipids-skin-factor-needed-healthy-young-looking-skin/

McDermott, A. 2019. 10 Benefits of Evening Primrose Oil and How to Use it. Medically reviewed by Wilson, DR.  [WWW document – 3/2/2022].  URL https://www.healthline.com/health/evening-primrose-oil

Wertz, PW. 1992. Epidermal lipids. Seminars in Dermatology 11(2):106-113.

Woolf, A, Wong, M, Eyres, L, McGhie, T, Lund, C, Olsson, Wang, Y, Bulley, C, Wang M, Friel, E & Requejo-Jackman, C.  2009.  Speciality oils – Avocado oil. New York.  Elsevier Inc.


Humectants have the ability to attract and transport moisture from the environment and from the lower layers of skin (dermis) to increase the amount of moisture (water) in the surface layers of skin. It thus keeps the skin hydrated and prevent dryness or scaling of the epidermis. Examples of humectants are: sodium hyalluronate, hyaluronic acid, glycerin, lactic acid, certain peptides & amino acids, aloe vera & honey.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Debara, D. 2019. Dry skin vs. dehydrated: how to tell the difference – and why it matters. Medically reviewed by Stephens, C. [WWW document – 6/2/2022]. URL https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-care/dry-vs-dehydrated.

Enzyme inhibitors

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme in order to reduce or inhibit the reaction of the enzyme. The normal manner in which the enzyme would have operated is now disrupted. Jean baré ARMAMENT contains various inhibitors to slow down the aging process of collagen and elastin degradation, and also inhibitors for the formation of melanin. 

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Pillaiyar, T, Manickam, M & Namasivayam, V. 2017. Skin whitening agents:  medical chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 32(1):403-425. 

Zolghadri, S, Bahrami, A, Khan, MTH, Munoz-Munoz, J, Garcia-Molina, F, Carcia-Canovas, F & Saboury, AA.  2019.  A comprehensive review on tyrosinase inhibitors. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 34(1):279-309.

NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor)

The outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, contains a selection of water-soluble compounds that is responsible for keeping the skin hydrated. Various enzymes also get to work in this layer, of which the main function is the breakdown of dead skin cells in order to reveal healthy skin below. These enzymes can however just function in a hydrated surrounding. The role of the NMF is thus to maintain skin’s pliability, provide a favourable surrounding for hydraulic enzymes to facilitate the process of desquamation and to contribute to the skin barrier function.

The NMF are composed out of amino acids, inorganic salts (such as sodium, potassium, chlorides, phosphates, calcium & magnesium), sugars, urea and lactic acid. These components are all highly effective humectants seeing that they combine to attract water from the atmosphere, and thus hydrate the skin accordingly.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Boost Your Skin’s Natural Moisture Factor. [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://rejuvenated.com/boost-your-skins-natural-moisture-factor/

Fowler, J. 2012. Understanding the Role of Natural Moisturizing Factor in Skin Hydration. Practical Dermatology 2012.

Robinson, M, Visscher, M, Laruffa, A & Wickett, R. 2010. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). Journal of Cosmetic Science Jan-Feb 61(1):13-22.


Occlusives are moisturisers that form a protective layer on the surface of the skin, mimicking the skin’s natural lipid barrier. This barrier prevents trans epidermal water loss via evaporation and protects the skin from external irritants. Examples of occlusives are: mineral oil, silicone oil, petroleum jelly, olive oil, beeswax & lanolin.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Grant, K. 2021. What’s the difference between a humectant, emollient and occlusive, and which do I need? [WWW document – 3/2/2022]. URL https://freeagentskincare.com/blogs/news/whats-the-difference-between-a-humectant-emollient-and-occlusive-and-which-do-i-need.

Wizemann, S. 2020. What you need to know about occlusives in skincare. [WWW document – 4/2/2022]. URL https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/beauty-products/a34406550/what-is-occlusive-skincare-ingredients/


Peptides are made out of short chains of amino acids, which in turn, if longer, makes up proteins. Proteins again, are what collagen, elastin and keratin are made up of. And these as we know, are the building blocks of the skin and responsible for texture & resilience. Without peptides the skin loses its elasticity, bounce and starts sagging. Texture of the skin also lacks elasticity as more and more wrinkles will appear. When peptides are applied topically though, it will act as messengers to skin cells, signaling them to again start performing certain functions as the formation of new collagen and elastin. Peptides thus has an anti-aging ability when added to skincare routines.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Debono, J, Xie, B, Violette, A, Fourmy R, Jaeger, M & Fry, BG. 2016. Viper Venom Botox: The Molecular Origin and Evolution of the Waglerin Peptides Used in Anti-Wrinkle Skin Cream.  Journal of Molecular Evolution 84:8-11.

Gallagheron, G. 2020. Peptides and Your Skin Care Routine. [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://www.healthline.com/health/peptides-for-skin


Trans epidermal water loss refers to the amount of water that evaporates from the epidermis, excluding the water that leaves the skin via sweating. The average human TEWL per day is about 300-400ml (depending on the water vapor pressure gradient). If the TEWL is too high, it is an indication of an impaired barrier function of the epidermis.

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Akdeniz, M, Gabriel, S, Lichterfeld-Kottner, A, Blume-Peytavi, U & Kottner, J. 2018. Trans epidermal water loss in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis update.  Epub (Nov)179 (5):1049-1055.

Skin homeostasis

For the skin to constantly renew itself, and to maintain all functions to stay in equilibrium, it needs blood flow, moisture and lipids. Lipids in the stratum corneum plays a tremendous, big role in the health and integrity of the skin. These lipids form a barrier that prevents TEWL and also protects the skin from the invasion of unwanted microbes. Healthy skin also needs micro vessels and sufficient blood flow. Jean baré ARMAMENT assist the skin in all of the above to ensure skin homeostasis and equilibrium. Various moisturisers (like avocado oil & evening primrose oil) have been added to all products, which contains fatty acids of integral importance like linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. And to finalise, as mentioned previously, all ARMAMENT products are enhanced with Mucor racemosus that ensures sufficient and effective blood flow to capillaries of the skin.


(Barton, S & Gabriel, N. 2019. What is the stratum corneum and its importance in skin care.  .  [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://cosmeticsbusiness.com/news/article_page/What_is_the_stratum_corneum_and_its_importance_in_skin_care/143839)

Reference, peer reviewed/concept analysis:
Barton, S & Gabriel, N. 2019. What is the stratum corneum and its importance in skin care.  .  [WWW document – 5/2/2022]. URL https://cosmeticsbusiness.com/news/article_page/What_is_the_stratum_corneum_and_its_importance_in_skin_care/143839

Hwa, C, Bauer, EA & Cohen, DE. 2011. Skin Biology.  Dermatologic Therapy 24(5):464-470.

Li, Q, Fang, H, Dang, E & Wang, G. 2020. The role of ceramides in skin homeostasis and inflammatory skin diseases. Journal of Dermatological Science 97(1):2-8.

Miller, T. 2009. Skin Aging Handbook – An integrated approach to biochemistry and product development.  Person Care & Cosmetic Technology. New York. William Andrew Applied Science Publishers.

Murphrey, MB, Miao, JH & Zito, PM. 2021. Histology, Stratum Corneum. [WWW document – 5/2/2022].  URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513299/

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